Ford Escort Engine
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About Ford Escort Engine
The letters CVH denote a particular type of 4-cylinder internal combustion engine produced by the Ford Motor Company during the 1980s and 1990s.
The CVH (Compound Valve angle hemispherical combustion chamber) engine was introduced by Ford in 1980 in the third generation Ford Escort. It was later used in the Ford Sierra as well as the second generation Ford Fiesta. Engines were built in the Dearborn Engine Plant for the North American market, and in Ford’s then-new engine plant in Bridgend in Wales for the European market.
The engine was originally conceived in 1974 and is unique in terms of its valves mounted at a compound angle, which allows for a hemispherical combustion chamber shape without using a more expensive twin camshaft arrangement. It also featured hydraulic valve lifters, a first for a European Ford engine.
A high-performance version was devised for 1984 with electronic fuel injection and a turbocharger.
Throughout its 20-year production life, the CVH had a reputation for being harsh and noisy at high speeds, and for its lubricating oil to sludge prematurely. Timing belts frequently failed about 60,000 to 90,000 miles (100,000 to 150,000 kilometres).
The engine was produced in many different capacities from 1.1 to 1.9 litres, the smaller versions being exclusively for 1.6.
The 1.6 L CVH was used in the 1981 North American Ford Escort. Bore was 80 mm (3.149 in) and stroke was 79.5 mm (3.130 in). Output was 69 hp (52 kW) and 86 ft-lb (117 Nm).
The CVH was bumped up to 1.9 L for the 1986 model year Escort. Bore was now 82 mm (3.230 in) and stroke was up as well to 88 mm (3.465 in). This stroke length would be used in all future CVH engines, and continued into the Zeta engine which replaced it. This long stroke necessitated a raised engine block deck, a design also shared with later units. Output was 86 hp (64 kW) and 100 ft-lb (136 Nm).
Electronic fuel injection and hemispherical “hemi” combustion chambers were added for 1987’s Escort GT, bumping output to 108 hp (81 kW) and 114 ft-lb (155 Nm). The plain escort got sequential EFI for 1995, but power and torque was little changed at 88 hp (66 kW) and 108 ft-lb (146 Nm) respectively.
The last CVH engine was the 2.0 L introduced in the 1998 Escort. It now used sequential port injection and produced 110 hp (82 kW) and 125 ft-lb (170 Nm). The additional displacement was achieved by boring the 1.9 engine to 84.8 mm (3.339 in). This same engine was used in the American-market Ford Focus.
Escorts engine types
1980-1986 Ford Escort Mk.3 (Europe): 1.1 L, 1.3 L, 1.6 L
1986-1990 Ford Escort Mk3.5 (Europe): 1.4 L, 1.6 L
1990-1998 Ford Escort Mk.4 (Europe): 1.4 L, 1.6 L (1.6 L replaced by Zetec in ’92)
1981-1985 Ford Escort 1.6 L and 1.9 L
Note that the 1.1 L version was only offered in Continental Europe, 1.1 L Escort Mk.3’s for the United Kingdom used the 1117cc Kent engine.
Escorts CVH-PTE engine
The CVH-PTE is a revised version of the Ford CVH engine which was introduced on the European Ford Escort in 1995. It features a thicker crankcase to combat the harshness at high revs, although the 1990’s saw it gradually being phased out in favour of the newer Zetec 16-valve unit.
Kent engine used in the 1.1 L Escort Mark 3
The Ford Kent is an internal combustion engine from Ford of Europe. Originally developed in 1959 for Ford, it is an in-line four cylinder overhead valve type engine with a cast iron cylinder head and block.
The original 1.6 L/97.5 (1599 cc) Kent was used in many cars on both sides of the Atlantic. With a 81 mm (3.2 in) bore and 77.6 mm (3.1 in), it was a departure from traditional under square English engine design.
A redesign gave it a cross-flow type cylinder head, hence the Kent’s alternative name “Ford Crossflow”.
The engine was revised to suit front wheel drive installation in 1976. The ancillaries were repositioned and the cylinder head redesigned. This version of the Kent was known as the Valencia engine, after the Spanish production plant in which it was made. It would later see service in the third generation Ford Escort.
In 1988 the engine was revised once again to meet with tightening European emissions legislation and the requirement to use unleaded fuel. The redesign included an all-new cylinder head with hardened valve inserts, reshaped combustion chambers, and a fully electronic, distributor less ignition system. The engine was renamed the Ford HCS (High Compression Swirl). It first appeared on the Ford Escort.
The final redesign came in 1995, it featured many revisions to combat noise and harshness.
The Kent engine was largely responsible for Ford gaining a name in the 1960s and 1970s for producing cars which were reluctant to start in damp weather conditions. The sitting of the distributor tucked at the back of the engine beneath the inlet manifold made it an ideal candidate for attracting moisture and condensation with the obvious effects in damp weather. The arrival of electronic ignition in 1986 put paid to these problems.
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